Milton Goldsmith: A Victim of Conscience

In my last post we saw what my cousin Milton Goldsmith predicted for the 21st century; in this post, we will start to look at his life in the 20th century.

In 1900, Milton was recently married to Sophie Hyman of New York City, and the newlywed couple were living in Philadelphia where Milton continued to make a living as a clothing merchant. Their first child, Rosalind, was born on February 1, 1901, in Philadelphia,1 and a second daughter, Madeleine, followed on May 20, 1904, also in Philadelphia.2

By this time Milton had published his first novel, Rabbi and Priest (1891), as discussed here, as well as a second novel, A Victim of Conscience (1903).3

A Victim of Conscience takes place in the 1850s in a city that is unnamed but (based on the street names) is most likely Philadelphia. The main character is a recent German Jewish immigrant named Isaac Schwartz.  He has been in America for four years at the beginning of the novel and is living in dire poverty, desperate for a way to earn enough money to support his family. He finally decides to go to California to join the gold rush. There he encounters anti-Semitism and abuse and ultimately commits the crime that makes him a “victim of conscience.”

The principal theme of the book is atonement. Isaac seeks advice from a rabbi about how to atone for his crime and is discouraged by some of the rigidity of Jewish law. He then considers converting to Catholicism and studies with a priest, but ultimately decides that he can’t accept the notion that mere faith in Christ as his savior will provide salvation. In the end he learns that Judaism can provide a path to forgiveness and expiation for his sins.

The book’s focus is thus on Isaac’s struggle with his conscience and how religion affects that struggle. But the book is of more interest to me in the way that it reflects the way my cousin Milton understood his own family’s story—their life in Germany, their reasons for leaving Germany, and the life they found when they first settled in the US fifty years before he wrote this book. A few excerpts will illustrate what I mean.

Although I have no reason to assume that Milton was being at all autobiographical in describing the lives of some of his characters, I did wonder whether this description of Isaac’s life in Germany was based on his father Abraham’s life in Oberlistingen before emigrating:4

Isaac’s father, old Meyer Schwartz, was a power in his native village of D. He was in fair circumstances, and educated as far as education went in those days; for the Jews, rich and poor alike, were denied the privileges of the village schools, and were limited in their instruction to the teachings of their “Cheders ” and the scraps of information which they could impart one to the other. Old Schwartz was a profound Talmud scholar, and was deemed as wise as he was devout, which was no equivocal compliment, for he was pious indeed. … It was [his] ambition to make a Rabbi of [Isaac], but in spite of his earnest and painstaking instruction, Isaac never got beyond the general outlines of the law and the Talmud. Buying and selling afforded him more pleasure than poring over parchments, and, after a vain effort to keep him to his studies, old Schwartz reluctantly allowed him to follow his own inclinations.

Milton also provided some background for the reasons so many German Jews emigrated:5

In those days the Jews in Germany had few rights and many grievances. Harsh measures were devised, stringent laws enacted to drive them out of the country, or at least to restrict their increase. The possession and cultivation of land, the study of a profession, the following of the fine arts, were all interdicted. Buying and selling, borrowing and lending, were the only channels in which the Israelites were allowed to exercise their ingenuity, and grievous was their condition in consequence. Worse still, a Jew was not allowed to marry until some co-religionist in the community had died or had moved away.

His main character Isaac decides to emigrate because he wants to marry the woman he loves, Lena, and cannot stay in his home community and do so.

Milton also described the hard lives of the Jews who made a living as peddlers after coming to the US, as his father Abraham probably did:6

A number of peddlers were among the visitors, stalwart young fellows but lately arrived from Germany, who, with a heavy pack on their shoulders, or, if their means allowed, with horse and wagon, wandered through the State, hawking a varied assortment of merchandise, and seeking to master the American tongue while they accumulated American dollars. It was a hard experience, but a salutary one. For the pious Jews, peddling meant untold privations, a total abstinence of all food except eggs and such “Kosher” dried meats as they could carry with them. It meant a weary trudging through unfamiliar villages, over stony roads, amid hostile surroundings, from Sunday morning until Friday evening, and a short rest on the Sabbath in some synagogue town.

It was a career which might well have daunted the most enterprising youth, and yet thousands of “greenhorns ” adopted it, thrived at it, became wealthy through it. It was not considered degrading in those pioneer days, but eminently proper for a new arrival.

19th century etching of a peddler by Granger found at http://fineartamerica.com/featured/1-peddler-19th-century-granger.html

The book also sheds light on the lives of German Jewish families in Philadelphia during that time period—the level of observance of Jewish law, the economic and social conditions, and the relationship between the Jewish and non-Jewish communities. The book is likely more valuable today for what it reveals about its times than for its literary merit, but for me, it was a worthwhile read.

Thus, by 1903, Milton had published two novels and written many essays, short stories, and even a musical. He and his family must have decided that it was time to leave Philadelphia and move to New York City where he might have more opportunities to pursue his literary career.

You can download a free copy of A Victim of Conscience here.


  1. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VBYW-R9L : 9 March 2018), Rosalind Goldsmith, 01 Feb 1901; citing bk 1901 p 107, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,340. 
  2. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VBBL-N5K : 8 December 2014), Madeline Goldsmith, 29 May 1904; citing cn 22583, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 2,110,933. 
  3. Milton Goldsmith, A Victim of Conscience (Henry T. Coates & Co., 1903). 
  4. Ibid., p.6. 
  5. Ibid., p. 7. 
  6. Ibid., pp. 84-85. 

Milton Goldsmith Predicts the Future

After the publication of his first book Rabbi and Priest in 1891, Milton Goldsmith contributed a number of essays and short stories to the Philadelphia newspapers. My favorite is “In the Next Century”1 dated August 28, 1892, when he predicted—with tongue in cheek—what life would be like in the year 2000:

Here are a few highlights from this clever and humorous look at the future—or in our case, the past:

It is safe to assume that the world is but in its infancy, and that coming generations will show a vast mental and physical improvement over the present inhabitants of the globe. Our varied knowledge, the wonderful progress on which we are so prone to pride ourselves, will probably appear as absurd to our progeny as the fragmentary information of our forefathers appears to us. Knowledge will be universal, and the inhabitants of our continent will, in the next century, be intellectual giants.

Imagine yourselves transported to the year 2000….What a change greets our wondering eyes. Ignorance appears to be unknown. The child of 5 knows more than the college graduate of the present era. Let us examine the system that has wrought this improvement.  The guide of that year first leads us into the School for Infants. It is here that the babies are taught under the supervision of the government. Competent teachers are appointed the very young idea to shoot. For example, as soon as a child is old enough to drink milk from a bottle, it is taught at the same time the fundamental laws of suction and the principle of the air-pump. Experiments with valves, Torricelli vacuums, etc., form part of the curriculum.

An illustration of Torricelli’s vacuum
By Kilom691 (The New Student’s Reference Work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

How disappointed my cousin Milton would be. I am far past infancy yet I still didn’t know what a Torricelli vacuum was!

He continued with further examples of how babies and children would be instructed in gravity, zoology, geometry, trigonometry, and other mathematical and scientific concepts. Then he looked at medicine and health in the year 2000:

With a people of such mental caliber it is but natural that arts, science and inventions should prosper. The pleasure and comfort of man is greatly enhanced by the numerous devices invented for his welfare. Principal among these are the appliances for fostering the health of the community. Sickness is absolutely unknown. The medical fraternity, having discovered the germ of each disease, have at the same time provided an antidote for such germs. At the age of 2 months the child is vaccinated against tuberculosis. At the age of 3 months against cholera; at the age of four months against smallpox, and so on at regular intervals against all the diseases in the modern doctor books.

Here, Milton has done a better job of prognostication; we do have vaccines against smallpox and tuberculosis and many other diseases. But alas, we certainly have not eliminated all diseases.

Smallpox vaccine
By Photo Credit: James Gathany Content Providers(s): CDC [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Milton went on to describe, with tongue in cheek, the extreme measures that would be taken to prevent the reintroduction of germs into society—“Before a mother kisses her child she cleans her teeth and lips with an antiseptic solution. All water is boiled, and all milk sterilized before it is taken.”

He then takes this notion and applies it to the way adults will behave in the year 2000.

When the boy or girl reaches the age when matrimony appears a consummation devoutly to be wished, there are no haphazard marriages as in former days.  The partner to be chosen is carefully examined by a psychologist, a pathologist and a phrenologist, and every peculiarity of mental or physical structure carefully noted.  Only such parties who are perfectly sound and whose peculiarities are fitted to one another, are allowed to mate. Such a thing as an unhappy marriage, or a divorce, are as a matter of course impossible. Sick or weakly offspring are unknown.

What would Milton think of couples meeting through online dating? Of our over 50% divorce rate? Of birth control and premarital sex?

He then discussed married life:

The intelligent groom knows that promiscuous kissing is injurious; that each kiss, acting upon the sensitive nerves of touch, are apt to create a depletion of nervo-vital force. He therefore limits his kisses to two a day. The lips are carefully disinfected before and after each osculations.  …. The groom retires promptly at 10 o’clock, as sufficient sleep is found to be more important than making love.

Imagine Milton watching some of the movies or television shows of our era. What would he think?

Finally, Milton reached his conclusions about life in the year 2000:

As a result of this wonderful system sickness is unknown in the community. People live to the normal age of 100 years and then die suddenly without a struggle. The remains are immediately cremated, the ashes disinfected and buried ten feet in the earth.

Taking it all in all one is almost glad that this happy time has not yet arrived, for though we may have more disease than the possible inhabitant of A.D. 2000, we have a great deal more fun.

Ah, Cousin Milton, how wrong you were! We are still having a lot of fun, probably more than your generation did, as we have fewer diseases, more leisure time, looser social mores, and all the amazing toys that modern science has given us.

I loved the satiric tone of his essay.  And I also loved the sense that while I am now looking backward to learn about the life that Milton led as a young man in the 19th century, in 1892 he was looking forward to the future to imagine what life would be like for his descendants in the 21st century.

By Tony Grist (Photographer’s own files) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

Milton’s creative output in the 19th century was not limited to short stories and essays. In December 1893, Milton’s burlesque entitled “Jay Cesar, Esq.”—which he wrote and acted in—was performed by the Stag Opera Comique Company in Philadelphia. According to the Philadelphia Inquirer, “it was a distinct success from every standpoint and from a social standpoint it was decidedly the leading event in Hebrew society this season so far.”  The performance consisted of two hours of “catchy airs, humorous songs, fantastic dances and whimsical dialogue.” 2

Milton was obviously a very talented young man.  The 20th century would find him leaving behind his life as a merchant and making a new career in a new city.  I wonder what he would have predicted for his own future when he wrote “In the Next Century” in 1892.

 

 

 


  1. Milton Goldsmith, “In the Next Century,” The Philadelphia Times, August 28, 1892, p. 19. 
  2. “Stags on Stage,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 29, 1893, p. 3. A full copy of the text of Jay Cesar can be found here. It is quite clever, and Milton is credited not only with the whole text, but also with some of the music. For other stories, essays, and other works by Milton Goldsmith during the 1890s, see, “Milton Goldsmith’s Lecture Before the Young Men’s Hebrew Association,” The Philadelphia Times, March 28, 1897, p, 9; Milton Goldsmith, “That Grateful Ghost,” The Philadelphia Times, March 5, 1893, p. 23; Milton Goldsmith, “Raps Told of Murder,” The Philadelphia Times, December 11, 1892, p. 23; Milton Goldsmith, “The Pride of the Circus,” The Philadelphia Times, August 14, 1892, p. 10; Milton Goldsmith, “The Three Responses,” The Philadelphia Times, March 27, 1892, p. 14. 

Milton Goldsmith: Rabbi and Priest

When I prepared this post, it didn’t occur to me that I would be publishing it on the day  that is both Good Friday and Erev Passover—the night of the first seder. But it couldn’t be a more appropriate day to post about a book that deals with the need for religious tolerance—written by my cousin Milton Goldsmith in 1891.

Happy Passover and Happy Easter to all!


Abraham Goldsmith’s oldest child was his son Milton, born to Abraham’s first wife Cecelia on May 22, 1861, in Philadelphia.1 I have been looking forward to researching and writing about Milton for a long time, ever since my father told me that he had once met one of his Goldsmith cousins and remembered that he had written children’s books. It took me a while to figure out which Goldsmith that was, but I believe that it must have been Milton.

From what I’ve written about Milton so far, you would not know about his literary interests and career.  From the late 1880s until at least 1900, public records listed his occupation as clothing merchant, and he worked in his father’s clothing store, A.Goldsmith & Sons, for many years.

But even during those years, Milton was engaged in other, more creative pursuits. According to one online biography, Milton graduated from Central High School in Philadelphia in 1877 and then studied literature, languages, and music at the University of Zurich for three years from 1877 until 1880 when he returned to Philadelphia.

His first full length novel was published by the Jewish Publication Society in 1891. It was an interesting choice of subject matter for the son of a very successful German-Jewish immigrant. Entitled Rabbi and Priest, it is the story of two Russian Jewish brothers who are separated during a pogrom; one eventually finds his way to Kiev where his uncle lives; he is educated in a yeshiva and grows up to be a rabbi.  The other is rescued by a Russian Countess and sent to a monastery where he grows up to be a priest.2

The book provides insight into the lives of poor Jews living in Russia in the 19th century and their attitudes, practices, and beliefs as well as the lives and views of the Christian populations. It also includes information about Russian history and the treatment of Jews there between 1850 and 1880, including details about pogroms and the attitudes of the czars and the Russian people. There are also insights into Milton Goldsmith’s own beliefs and attitudes, revealed by the character of Phillip Harris, a Russian Jew who immigrates to America and comes back to visit his former home in Kiev.

Milton Goldsmith explained in the preface to his book his reasons for writing this story:3

Towards the end of 1882, there arrived at the old Pennsylvania Railroad Depot in Philadelphia, several hundred Russian refugees, driven from their native land by the inhuman treatment of the Muscovite Government. Among them were many intelligent people, who had been prosperous in their native land, but who were now reduced to dire want. One couple, in particular, attracted the attention of the visitors, by their intellectual appearance and air of gentility, in marked contrast to the abject condition of many of their associates. Joseph Kierson was the name of the man, and the story of his sufferings aroused the sympathy of his hearers. The man and his wife were assisted by the Relief Committee, and in a short time were in a condition to provide for themselves.

The writer had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Kierson a few years later and elicited from him a complete recital of his trials and an account of the causes of the terrible persecution which compelled such large numbers of his countrymen to flee from their once happy homes.

His story forms the nucleus of the novel I now present to my readers. While adhering as closely as possible to actual names, dates and events, it does not pretend to be historically accurate. In following the fortunes of Mendel Winenki, from boyhood to old age, it endeavors to present a series of pictures portraying the character, life, and sufferings of the misunderstood and much-maligned Russian Jew.

In the description of Russia’s customs and characteristics, the barbarous cruelty of her criminal code and the nihilistic tendency of the times, the author has followed such eminent writers as Wallace, Foulke, Stepniak, Tolstoi and Herzberg-Fraenkel. The accounts of the riots of 1882 will be found to agree in historic details with the reports which were published at the time.

With this introduction, I respectfully submit the work to the consideration of an indulgent public.

MILTON GOLDSMITH

Philadelphia, April, 1891

Russian Jews in Philadelphia 1890

The themes that run through the book focus primarily on anti-Semitism and its roots, Jewish faith and identity, and the value of a more worldly and secular education. As to the first, Goldsmith wrote:4

The serf persecutes the Jew because he is himself persecuted by the nobility. There is no real animosity between the peasant and his Jewish neighbors. Our wretched state is the outgrowth of a petty tyranny, in which the serf desires to imitate his superiors. Let the people once enjoy freedom and they will cease to persecute the Hebrews, without whom they cannot exist.

I thought this was an insightful perspective for someone living in 1893—to understand that a group’s prejudice often has its roots in its own oppression and poverty and that freedom and prosperity for all is the best way to eliminate hate and discrimination.

But it is Goldsmith’s attitudes towards education and assimilation that I found most interesting, keeping in mind that he was a man who had spent three years in Switzerland, learning about literature, language, and music. First, he notes how Talmudic study sharpens the intellect of Jewish students:5

It was to this incessant study of the Scriptures that Israel owed its patience, its courage, its fortitude during centuries of persecution. It was this constant delving for truth which produced that bright, acute Jewish mind, which in days of fanaticism and intolerance, protected the despised people from stupefying mental decay.

But then he expresses concern for how Talmudic study fosters closed-mindedness and superstition, stating,”That this study often degenerated into a mere useless cramming of unintelligible ideas is easily understood, and its effects were in many cases the reverse of ennobling.”6

It is, however, when the character of Phillip Harris returns to Russia and speaks of life in America that Goldsmith’s personal views and experience are most clearly revealed.  In speaking with the people of his former community in Kiev, Philip asserts that Jews are on equal footing with Christians in America, and when questioned about the fact that he has shaved his beard and abandoned many traditional Jewish practices, he says:7

[I]t seems to me that a Jew can remain a Jew even if he neglect some of those ceremonials which have very little to do with Judaism pure and simple. Some are remnants of an oriental symbolism, others comparatively recent additions to the creed, which ought to give way before civilization. What possible harm can it do you or your religion if you shave your beard or abandon your jargon for the language of the people among whom you live? … Every effort to develop the Jewish mind is checked, not by the gentiles, but by the Jews themselves. … A knowledge of the history of the world, an insight into modern science, will teach us why and wherefore all our laws were given and how we can best obey, not the letter but the spirit of God’s commands.

Romanian Jewish journalist Sache Petreanu, an advocate of assimilation, cutting off the payot of an observant Jew (1899 caricature by Constantin Jiquidi)
Constantin_Jiquidi_-_Sache_Petreanu,_Foaia_Populară,_14_feb_1899

Phillip continued:8

You will all admit that you place more weight upon your ceremonials than upon your faith. You deem it more important to preserve a certain position of the feet, a proper intonation of the voice during prayers than to fully understand the prayer itself, and in spite of your pretended belief in the greatness and goodness of God, you belittle Him by the thought that an omission of a single ceremony, the eating of meat and milk together, the tearing of a tzitzith (fringe) will offend Him, or that a certain number of mitzvoth (good acts) will propitiate Him. Do you understand now what I mean when I say that superstition is not religion?

The character concludes by saying:.9

Worship God as your conscience dictates, continue in your ancient fashion if it makes you happy, but be tolerant towards him who, feeling himself mentally and spiritually above superstition, seeks to emancipate himself from its bonds and to follow the dictates of his own good common-sense

Goldsmith recognized that for those living in Russia where oppression and poverty made Jewish lives difficult, an adherence to these traditional practices was more understandable, for the rabbi responds to Phillip by saying, “Whether these observances are needed or are superfluous in a free country like America I shall not presume to say, but in Russia they are a moral and a physical necessity.”10

When poor Jews from Eastern Europe and Russia began to immigrate to the US in the 1880s and 1890s, they faced prejudice not only from the Christian majority here, but also from many Jews with German origins whose families had immigrated decades earlier and had assimilated into American life.11 I am proud of my cousin Milton Goldsmith for writing a book that tried to convey to Americans and perhaps in particular to American Jews the travails and obstacles faced by these new Russian Jewish immigrants. He does an excellent job of describing what their lives were like, why they were forced to emigrate, and why they were clinging to traditions and practices that American Jews might no longer feel necessary. And he also endorsed the need for and value of a liberal education and an open mind.

The book is not just a novel, but a lesson in tolerance, in the need for education, and in the power of faith when life seems too grim and hopeless to bear.

If you are interested in buying the book, it is available on Amazon as an e-book here.


  1. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VB16-KTZ : 8 December 2014), Milton Growsmith, 22 May 1861; citing bk 2 p 168, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,306. 
  2. Milton Goldsmith, The Rabbi and The Priest: A Story (Jewish Publication Society, 1891) 
  3. Goldsmith, Milton, Rabbi and Priest: A Story (pp. 6-8, Kindle edition). 
  4.  Goldsmith, Milton. Rabbi and Priest A Story (p. 30). Kindle Edition. 
  5.  Goldsmith, Milton. Rabbi and Priest A Story (p. 84). Kindle Edition. 
  6. Goldsmith, Milton. Rabbi and Priest A Story (p. 84). Kindle Edition. 
  7.  Goldsmith, Milton. Rabbi and Priest A Story (pp. 99-100). Kindle Edition. 
  8.  Goldsmith, Milton. Rabbi and Priest A Story (p. 102). Kindle Edition. 
  9.  Goldsmith, Milton. Rabbi and Priest A Story (p. 103). Kindle Edition. 
  10.  Goldsmith, Milton. Rabbi and Priest A Story (p. 104). Kindle Edition. 
  11. Irving Aaron Mandel, “Attitude of the American Jewish Community toward East-European Immigration As Reflected in the Anglo-Jewish Press 1880-1890,” American Jewish Archives, 1950. 

The Last Will and Testament of Abraham Goldsmith

As the 20th century began, the family of Abraham Goldsmith was doing quite well. His first four children with his first wife Cecelia were all married and living in Philadelphia; three of them had had children, giving Abraham seven grandchildren. His five younger children were still living at home with him and his second wife Frances and ranged in age from seventeen to thirty. All but Louis, the youngest, were employed outside the home. On February 1, 1901, Abraham was blessed with an eighth grandchild when his son Milton and his wife Sophie had their first child, a daughter they named Rosalind.1

Abraham, however, had been in poor health ever since suffering a stroke in about 1890, and he died on January 20, 1902, from “chronic softening of the brain.” From what I can gather from various internet sources, the condition is also known as encephalomalacia, and the softening of brain tissue is usually caused by a stroke, hemorrhage, infection, or injury. Abraham was 69 when he died. He left behind his wife Frances, his nine children, and eight grandchildren.

Abraham Goldsmith death certificate
“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6737-JK6?cc=1320976&wc=9FRP-DP8%3A1073221502 : 16 May 2014), 004009534 > image 785 of 1754; Philadelphia City Archives and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

In the obituary in the Philadelphia Jewish Exponent,2 Abraham’s business was described as “one of the most prominent in its line in the United States.” He served on the boards of several financial institutions and was a member of two lodges. Abraham was not only an important business owner in Philadelphia, he was a leader and “rendered conspicuous service” in several charitable organization including being “president of the Orphans’ Guardians, a trustee of Keneseth Israel Congregation, director and vice president of the Jewish Hospital Association, and secretary of the United Hebrew Charities.”

Abraham’s funeral was “largely attended;” the rabbi “paid high tribute to [his] many virtues, his philanthropic instincts and sterling character, referring feelingly to the many acts of kindness and generosity which had endeared him to those whom he had aided during his lifetime, and to his tireless activity in all good work.”

Abraham Goldsmith obituary, The Philadelphia Exponent, January 24, 1902, p. 3.

The Philadelphia Times also published an obituary, describing Abraham as “one of the pioneer Israelites in this city” and listing his various charitable activities.3 The Philadelphia Inquirer described him as a “prominent business man of this city.”4

I found Abraham’s will quite interesting and transcribe it here in its entirety from the handwritten text:5

I Abraham Goldsmith of Philadelphia merchant do make publish and declare this to be my last will and testament, revoking all former wills ever made.

First: I give and bequeath to my son Milton my library and bookcase and the oil painting of his mother Cecelia Goldsmith.

Second: I give and bequeath to my son Edwin M my gold watch chain, masonic mark and my diamond stud.

Third: All other jewelry, coins, laces, and trinkets of my first wife shall be divided between my daughters Rose, Emily and Estelle as keepsakes by my executors in such manner as they shall think proper.

Fourth: Subject to the above provisions I give bequeath and devise to my executors and trustees all my estate real residual and ? for the purposes and upon the trusts here in [end of page 1] after expenses.

Pennsylvania probate record; Probate Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Source Information
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.
Original data: Pennsylvania County, District and Probate Courts. Wills, No 277-299, 1902

Fifth: All just debts and funeral expenses to be paid.

Sixth: As much or all of my Real estate as my heirs and executors deem best to be disposed of at public and private sale as soon as convenient after my death and the executors to make good title without being compelled to give security for the proper application of the funds to be received and the money so received to be considered as invested in personal property prior to the sale.

Seventh: My property to be so divided that my wife shall receive her share absolutely and the ballance [sic] to be divided among my children share and share alike so that my children of age shall receive their share at once and those that are minors to receive their share on becoming of age.

Eight: That my wife shall be guardian [end of page 2] for the minor children during their minority, she receiving the income derived from the investments for their support and education until of age and no longer.

Ninth: That the executors and trustees for the minor children have full power to invest and call in and reinvest at their pleasure and at their discretion, the investments not to be confined to what are termed legal investments.

Tenth: That my Life Insurance which was held in trust, and endowments which may be coming to me from different Societies and Lodges, shall be considered as part of my personal property and to be distributed as per direction of my Will.

Eleventh: In case of death of anyone of anyone [sic] of my children during its minority or as long as they are unmarried, all expenses incurred during sickness and burial expenses shall first be paid out of the portion set aside for the minor child and the ballance [sic] remaining to be divided in equal parts between my wife [end of page 3] and the surviving children.

Twelfth: I constitute and appoint my sons Milton Goldsmith, Edwin M Goldsmith, and my friend Morris H. Pulaski my executors, and trustees of my minor children and I direct that no security shall be required of them in either capacity. In case either of them should die, resign or fail to act, then I direct some good friend of the family to be substituted in place of one so dying, resigning or failing to act. I wish the trust always full. The substituted trustee or trustees shall have all the power and discretion conferred [sic] upon the executors and trustees who I have named.

In witness whereof I have this day the fourth day of October One Thousand Eight hundred Eighty Seven set my hand and seal. Philadelphia Oct 4th 1884.

Abraham Goldsmith [witnessed and sealed]

To add some context to these bequests, here is the estate inventory filed with the will:

Note that the largest elements in his estate were the proceeds of his life insurance policies, one being over $10,000, another over $20,000, and that the personal items were worth far less. For example, the books left to Milton were worth $50, the watch, stud, and jewelry totaled $100. To put this in today’s dollars, I turned once again to an inflation calculator.  One hundred dollars in 1902 would be worth over $27,000 today; $20,000 would be worth over $558,000. Abraham’s estate’s total value, $58,422.25, would be equivalent to $1,631,049.62 in today’s dollars.

Abraham had claimed to have $45,000 in personal and real property on the 1880 US census.  He then suffered a serious financial setback in 1886 after his brother Levy died. But at the time of his death, Abraham’s estate was worth over $58,000, or more than $1.6 million dollars in today’s money. Pretty impressive for a man who came to America as an immigrant when he was just eighteen.

Based on those numbers and the inflation calculator, it appears that Abraham had a library worth about $13,500, which he left to his son Milton. That tells me something about both Abraham and Milton—two men who must have greatly valued books. In fact, as we will see, Milton and his brother Louis both had careers that involved books. I also loved that Abraham made sure that those things that had belonged to his first wife, Cecelia, went to her children, including an oil painting of Cecelia. How I wish I knew what had happened to that painting. Maybe one of Milton’s descendants still has it? I hope so.

Abraham wrote the will before he went through the financial crisis in his business in 1886 and before he suffered the debilitating stroke in about 1890. When Abraham wrote this will in 1884, his five youngest children were still quite young—less than ten years old—whereas Milton and Edwin, whom he named as his executors, were 23 and 20, respectively.   When Abraham died in 1902, Louis, his youngest child, was twenty—the same age Edwin had been when Abraham originally wrote the will and named Edwin as an executor. It’s interesting that Abraham never changed his will to reflect the changes in his financial situation, his physical condition, or the changing ages and circumstances of his children, including their marriages and their children. There is no provision for grandchildren in the will.

Sadly, six years after Abraham died, his second wife Frances Spanier Goldsmith died. She was only 52 years old and died after suffering a stroke (apoplexy). Her obituary in the Philadelphia Jewish Exponent reported that her death “proved a great shock to the many friends of the Goldsmith family in this city. Mrs. Goldsmith had not been seriously ill and had been out walking the day before her death, which was caused by a stroke of paralysis.”    Abraham also had suffered a stroke, and his first wife Cecelia had died from a stroke when only 35. What was it about their lives that made them all susceptible to strokes?

Frances Spanier Goldsmith death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Certificate Number Range: 006001-010000
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

Frances’ obituary further commented that “Mrs. Goldsmith possessed a host of friends, being widely beloved and esteemed for many loveable qualities.”

The Philadelphia Jewish Exponent, January 24, 1908, p. 11.

The Philadelphia community lost two well-regarded citizens with the deaths of Abraham and Frances (Spanier) Goldsmith, and their children lost beloved parents. But those children, by then all adults, lived interesting lives. The posts to follow will focus on Abraham’s nine surviving children and their lives in the 20th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


  1. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VBYW-R9L : 9 March 2018), Rosalind Goldsmith, 01 Feb 1901; citing bk 1901 p 107, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,340. 
  2. Abraham Goldsmith obituary, The Philadelphia Exponent, January 24, 1902, p. 3. 
  3.  The Philadelphia Times, January 22, 1902, p. 7. 
  4. “Abraham Goldsmith Dead,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 22, 1902, p. 6. 
  5.  Pennsylvania probate record; Probate Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Source Information: Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993. Wills, No 277-299, 1902. 

Surprise! Another Mystery Solved When I Least Expected It

Sometimes when you aren’t even looking, an answer to an earlier mystery pops up unexpectedly. That’s what happened when I started researching the marriages of Abraham Goldsmith’s four oldest children, all of whom were married in the 1890s.

First, Edwin Goldsmith married Sarah Virginia Friedberger in 1891.1 Sarah Virginia, who was known as Jennie, was born in Philadelphia on January 17, 1866, to Henry Friedberger and Caroline Bellstrom.2 Her father was in the wholesale millinery business.  Edwin and Jennie had their first child on January 28, 1892, and they named her Cecile, presumably for Edwin’s mother, Cecelia Adler, who had died so young.3 A second child, Henry Friedberger Goldsmith, named for Jennie’s father, was born on September 8, 1893.4 In 1900 Edwin and Jennie and their sons were living in Philadelphia where Edwin continued to be a clothing merchant.

Edwin Goldsmith and family, 1900 US census
Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 22, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Page: 7; Enumeration District: 0486
Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census

Then, two of Abraham’s older daughters married in 1892. Emily Goldsmith was married on January 28, 1892, to Felix N. Gerson.5 And her marriage to Felix N. Gerson led me down quite an interesting rabbit hole and to a surprise—a solution to an unsolved mystery. Remember the “other” Harry Goldsmith—Harry N. Goldsmith, son of Raphael Goldsmith, who was living with Eva Goldsmith Anathan in 1910? I had been completely befuddled because I could not figure out why this Harry N. Goldsmith was living with my cousin (and the cousin of my cousin Harry Goldsmith) when he seemed to have no familial connection to my Goldsmiths. Well, stay tuned. It’s a bumpy ride.

I searched for background information on Felix N. Gerson as the husband of my cousin Emily Goldsmith. I found him on both the 1870 and 1880 census, living in Philadelphia with his parents, Aaron and Eva Gerson.  His father was a furrier, born in Prussia, and his mother was born in Pennsylvania.6

Then I found Felix on the Social Security Applications and Claims Index, giving his birth date as October 18, 1862, and his full name as Felix Napoleon Gerson. But what really jumped out was that his mother’s birth name was Eva Goldsmith.  This was confirmed on the death certificate for Felix Gerson—his mother was Eva Goldsmith, born in Philadelphia.

Felix N. Gerson, Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007. Original data: Social Security Applications and Claims, 1936-2007.

At first, I groaned. Oh, no, another intrafamily cousin marriage, I thought. Which Eva Goldsmith was this? So I searched for more information about Eva Goldsmith Gerson and found this record:

Eva Goldsmith Gerson death certificate
“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6G1Q-6L2?cc=1320976&wc=9FTM-K68%3A1073210502 : 16 May 2014), 004009428 > image 216 of 538; Philadelphia City Archives and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

This Eva Goldsmith was the daughter of Napoleon Goldsmith and Zerlina Rosenthal. I knew immediately that those names looked familiar, but they were not part of my Goldsmith family.  Napoleon and Zerlina Goldsmith were the grandparents of that mysterious Harry N. (for Napoleon) Goldsmith who’d been living in 1910 with my cousin, the other Eva Goldsmith who’d married Nathan Anathan. Their son Raphael was Harry Napoleon Goldsmith’s father.

Napoleon and Zerlina Goldsmith were also the grandparents of Felix Napoleon Gerson, who married my cousin Emily Goldsmith. Felix’s mother Eva Goldsmith Gerson was the sister of Raphael Goldsmith. So Felix Napoleon Gerson and Harry Napoleon Goldsmith were first cousins, both named for their grandfather Napoleon.

 

Now’s where it gets a bit trickier. Felix Gerson married Emily Goldsmith. Emily Goldsmith Gerson and Eva Goldsmith Anathan were first cousins also; Emily’s father Abraham and Eva’s father Levy were brothers (and had been in business together.)  Still with me? Here comes the final twist.

 

When Harry Napoleon Goldsmith moved in with Eva Goldsmith Anathan around 1910, he was living with the first cousin of the wife of his first cousin. That is, Harry Napoleon Goldsmith was the first cousin of Felix Napoleon Gerson. Felix Napoleon Gerson was married to Emily Goldsmith, whose first cousin was Eva Goldsmith Anathan. Got it? Here’s a chart:

 

Now I knew how Harry Napoleon Goldsmith ended up living with my cousin Eva Goldsmith Anathan. They were connected by the marriage of their respective first cousins—Felix and Emily.

Of course, I wasn’t done digging yet. I needed to determine whether Napoleon Goldsmith or his wife Zerlina nee Rosenthal were somehow related to me directly, not just by these circuitous connections. After hours of digging, I’ve concluded that they were not. Or at least in no obvious way. Napoleon Goldsmith was born in Nassau, Germany in around 1803 and came to the US in 1836. By 1840 he was married and living with one child in Philadelphia. His wife Zerlina was also born in Germany in around 1813, but I don’t know where. Her mother Rachel Rosenthal also immigrated, perhaps in the 1830s with her husband Seller, but I am not certain about that. At any rate, I think it’s just coincidence that these two separate Goldsmith families ended up connected by marriage.

But the good news was that I’d figured out why there was another unrelated Harry Goldsmith living with my cousin Eva Goldsmith in 1910.

Let’s return then to Emily Goldsmith and her husband Felix Napoleon Gerson. According to his entry in Who’s Who in Pennsylvania,7 Felix went to Philadelphia public schools and then studied civil engineering; in the 1880s he served in the department of the Chief Clerk, Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company, and then in 1891 he changed careers and became the managing editor of Chicago Israelite.  In 1892, Felix became the managing editor of the Jewish Exponent of Philadelphia.

As noted above, he married my cousin Emily Goldsmith on January 28, 1892. Their wedding was a very small and modest affair.

“Married Quietly at Home,” The Philadlephia Times, January 29, 1892, p. 5

Given Abraham’s one-time prosperity, I was surprised that Emily’s wedding was so understated. But then I learned from Abraham’s obituary8 that in 1890 or so he had suffered a serious stroke that left him disabled and in poor health. As his children were moving on to adulthood, his health was in decline.

Emily and Felix’s first child Celia was born on October 27, 1892.9  She was also presumably named for her grandmother, Emily’s mother Cecelia Adler Goldsmith. A second daughter, Dorothy, was born on June 2, 1897.10 In 1900, Emily, Felix, and their daughters were living in Philadelphia., and Felix was working as an editor.

Emily and Felix Gerson and family 1900 US Census
Philadelphia Ward 20, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Page: 4; Enumeration District: 0433
Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census

Emily’s sister Rose Goldsmith married Sidney Morris Stern on May 25, 1892.11 Sidney was born January 14, 1861, in Philadelphia, and was the son of Morris Stern and Matilda Bamberger, who were German-born immigrants. His father was in the retail clothing business.12  Rose and Sidney’s first child, Sylvan Goldsmith Stern, was born on March 2, 1893.13 Two years later Rose gave birth to twin boys, Allan Goldsmith Stern and Howard Eugene Stern, on August 6, 1895.14 I could not find Rose and her family on the 1900 census despite having their address in 1899, 1900, and 1901.  They were living in Philadelphia during those years, and Sidney was in the jewelry business with his brother Eugene.

The next wedding in the family of Abraham Goldschmidt was that of his oldest child, Milton.  On Valentine’s Day, February 14, 1899, Milton married Sophie Hyman in New York City. 15 Sophie was the daughter of Nathan Hyman and Rose Friedberger. And Rose Friedberger was the sister of Henry Friedberger, whose daughter Jennie had married Milton’s brother Edwin in 1891. So Milton married his sister-in-law Jennie’s first cousin, Sophie Hyman.  Sophie’s father Nathan was a corset manufacturer.

“Weddings of A Day. Goldsmith-Hyman,” The New York Times, Februaru 15, 1899, p. 7

I found it interesting that although Sophie selected Milton’s sister Estelle to be her only attendant, Milton did not select either of his brothers—Edwin or Louis—to be his best man or one of the ushers. Instead he selected a first cousin, Samuel Goldsmith (son of Meyer Goldsmith) to be his best man. His mother and other sisters and brother Edwin are listed among those attending the wedding; Louis was not listed, but perhaps the list did not include everyone attending.

In 1900 Milton and Sophie were living in Philadelphia where Milton continued to work as a clothing merchant.16

Thus, by 1899, Abraham Goldsmith had four married children and seven grandchildren. In 1900, he was living with his second wife Frances and his remaining five children. Estelle, his youngest child from his first marriage to Cecelia Adler, was now thirty years old and working as a school teacher.  As for Abraham’s four children with Frances, Albert, now 22, was working as a salesman. Bertha was 21 and working as a “saleslady.” Perhaps they were both working in their father’s clothing store. Alice, 18, was a milliner, and Louis, 17, was still in school. Abraham’s mother-in-law Sarah Adler, his first wife’s mother, was also still living with them. Although the census lists her as a teacher, since she was 87 years old, that seems unlikely.

Abraham Goldsmith and family 1900 census
Philadelphia Ward 12, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Enumeration District: 0208
Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census

The 20th century would bring new challenges and new accomplishments for the family of my three-times-great-uncle Abraham Goldsmith.


  1.  Ancestry.com. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Marriage Index, 1885-1951. Original data: “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Index, 1885–1951.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009. Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Clerk of the Orphans’ Court. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia marriage license index, 1885-1951.” Clerk of the Orphans’ Court, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. License No. 41318. 
  2.  Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Certificate Number Range: 059001-062000, Source Information. Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966. Original data: Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
  3.  Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007. Original data: Social Security Applications and Claims, 1936-2007. 
  4. Ancestry.com. U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Original data: United States, Selective Service System. World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. M1509, 4,582 rolls. Imaged from Family History Library microfilm. 
  5.  Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Marriages, 1852-1968. Original data: Marriage Records. Pennsylvania Marriages. Various County Register of Wills Offices, Pennsylvania. 
  6.  Year: 1870; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 10 District 32, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: M593_1395; Page: 549B; Family History Library Film: 552894. Source Information Ancestry.com. 1870 United States Federal Census. Year: 1880; Census Place: Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1172; Page: 458C; Enumeration District: 191, Source Information Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census 
  7.   John W. Leonard, ed.,Who’s who in Pennsylvania: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporaries (L. R. Hammersly, 1908, 2d. ed.), p. 292. 
  8. Abraham Goldsmith obituary, The Philadelphia Exponent, January 24, 1902, p. 3. 
  9.  Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014. Original data: Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
  10. Number: 161-05-1973; Issue State: Pennsylvania; Issue Date: Before 1951. Source Information Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935-2014 
  11.  Ancestry.com. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Marriage Index, 1885-1951. Original data: “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Index, 1885–1951.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009. Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Clerk of the Orphans’ Court. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia marriage license index, 1885-1951.” Clerk of the Orphans’ Court, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. License No. 51669. 
  12.  Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014. Original data: Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
  13. Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 
  14. Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, WWI Veterans Service and Compensation Files, 1917-1919, 1934-1948. Original data: World War I Veterans Service and Compensation File, 1934–1948. RG 19, Series 19.91. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg Pennsylvania. Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 
  15.  Ancestry.com. New York, New York, Extracted Marriage Index, 1866-1937. Certificate No. 3384. 
  16. Milton and Sophie Goldsmith, 1900 US Census, Philadelphia Ward 24, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Page: 13; Enumeration District: 0572, Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census. 

My Three-Times-Great Uncle Abraham Goldsmith: A Bursting Bubble

The second of my Goldschmidt three-times-great-uncles to arrive from Germany to Philadelphia was Abraham, Jacob’s younger brother. He was born on March 13, 1832, in Oberlistingen and came to the US on August 21, 1850, listing his occupation as a merchant. He was eighteen years old.

Birth record of Abraham Goldschmidt
Geburtsregister der Juden von Oberlistingen (Breuna) 1826-1852 (HHStAW Abt. 365 Nr. 668)AutorHessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv, Wiesbaden, p. 4

Abraham Goldschmidt passenger manifest 1850
Year: 1850; Arrival: New York, New York; Microfilm Serial: M237, 1820-1897; Microfilm Roll: Roll 091; Line: 1; List Number: 951

According to his obituary in The Philadelphia Jewish Exponent,1 Abraham first settled in Waynesburg and then Chester, Pennsylvania, before coming to Philadelphia in 1855. It’s interesting that he went first to Waynesburg, which is 25 miles from Washington, Pennsylvania, where his cousin Jacob Goldsmith was then living, rather than to Philadelphia, where his brother Jacob Goldsmith was living. My guess is that he was making a living as a peddler. But by 1855, he had moved to his brother’s city.

As I wrote about here, on January 17, 1858, Abraham married Cecelia Adler in Philadelphia.  Cecelia was the daughter of Samuel Adler and Sarah Kargau, and she was born on November 26, 1838, in Würzberg, Germany. She and her parents had immigrated to the US by 1850 and settled in Philadelphia where her father was a merchant.

Marriage record of Abraham Goldschmidt and Cecelia Adler
Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records; Reel: 792
Organization Name: Congregation Rodeph Shalom
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1669-2013

By 1860, Abraham had Americanized his surname to Goldsmith, and he and Cecelia were living in Philadelphia, where Abraham was a clothing merchant with $15,000 worth of personal property. According to an inflation calculator, that would be worth almost $428,000 in today’s money.

Abraham and Cecelia (Adler) Goldsmith 1860 census
Year: 1860; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 13, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: M653_1163; Page: 914; Family History Library Film: 805163

Abraham and Cecelia had six children between 1861 and 1870, all born in Philadelphia: Milton (May 22,1861),2 Hilda (August 22,1862),3 Edwin (April 10,1864)4, Rose (October 19,1866)5, Emily (April 30,1868)6, and Estelle (January 20, 1870)7.

On the 1870 census, Abraham claimed he had $25,000 worth of real estate and $20,000 worth of personal property. According to this inflation calculator, that would be the equivalent of about $820,000 in today’s money.  That seems incredible, but obviously Abraham was doing quite well in the clothing business. Cecelia’s parents were also living with Abraham and Cecelia and their six children in 1870, as well as three domestic servants.

Abraham Goldsmith and family 1870 census
Year: 1870; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 12 District 35, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: M593_1396; Page: 133B; Family History Library Film: 552895

Abraham might have been doing extremely well in his business, but he was not spared heartbreak. On November 8, 1874, Cecelia Adler Goldsmith died from apoplexy or what we would now call a stroke. She was only 35 years old and left behind six children ranging in age from six to thirteen years old. Abraham was left to raise these children on his own—with the help of his in-laws.

Cecilia Adler Goldsmith death certificate
“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-69HW-K75?cc=1320976&wc=9F52-L29%3A1073307201 : 16 May 2014), 004010206 > image 874 of 1214; Philadelphia City Archives and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Less than two years later, the family suffered another tragedy. Thirteen-year-old Hilda Goldsmith died from heart disease on June 7, 1876, in Philadelphia.  She would have turned fourteen two months later.

Hilda Goldsmith death certificate
“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-DZMS-RYC?cc=1320976&wc=9F56-929%3A1073334101 : 16 May 2014), 004058576 > image 749 of 1180; Philadelphia City Archives and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

One year later in 1876, Abraham remarried. His second wife was Frances Spanier.8 I have not found very much about her background, but according to her death certificate9 she was born on September 13, 1855, in Germany, making her more than twenty years younger than Abraham. According to her obituary, she was born in Hanover, Germany, and came to the US as a young girl and lived with relatives in Baltimore. I have been unable to find any record of her living in Baltimore, and the only manifest I found that seemed possibly relevant shows a Franziska Spanier, seventeen years old, who arrived in New York from Germany on May 1, 1876.10

Abraham and Frances were married in 1876, according to Frances’ obituary. Their first child Alfred was born on August 11, 187711, and a second, Bertha, followed on August 17, 1878.12

Frances had taken on quite a bit when she married Abraham. Living with them in 1880 in addition to their own toddlers Alfred and Bertha were Abraham’s five surviving children from his first marriage to Cecelia Adler: Milton (now 19), Edwin (16), Rosa (13), Emily (11), and Estelle (9). Moreover, Abraham’s in-laws from his first marriage, Samuel and Sarah Adler, were also living in the household. Abraham was the only member of the household who was employed; his children were all in school, and his father-in-law was retired. Abraham was supporting all those family members in his work as a clothing merchant. And Frances was taking care of not only her children and her stepchildren but her husband’s former in-laws.  She did have the assistance of two servants living in the home.

Abraham Goldsmith and family 1880 US census
Year: 1880; Census Place: Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1173; Page: 60A; Enumeration District: 202
Description
ED: 202; Description: Philadelphia 6th Electoral District 12th Ward
Source Information
Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census

To add to their financial and other responsibilities, Abraham and Frances then had two more children: Alice, born on August 29, 1880,13 and Louis, born November 4, 1883.14 (I found it interesting that three of Frances’ four children were born in August.) There were now nine children as well as four adults living in the home. Abraham’s first father-in-law Samuel Adler died on April 28, 1886.15

But Abraham had serious business problems ahead. From the 1860s and throughout the 1870s, Abraham had been in business with his brother Levy, who had arrived in Philadelphia three years after Abraham, but was eight years older. According to the 1881 Philadelphia directory, their business, Goldsmith Brothers, was in liquidation at that time. In 1882 Goldsmith Brothers is listed without any note about liquidation. And in 1883, Abraham and Levy were joined by their brother Meyer in the business.

Goldsmiths in the 1866 Philadelphia directory
Title: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1866
Source Information
Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995

Goldsmith Bros 1881 Philadelphia directory
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1881
Source Information
Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995

Goldsmith Bros 1883 Philadelphia directory
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1883
Source Information
Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995

When Levy died from meningitis on December 29, 1886 at the age of 62,16 Goldsmith Brothers was in serious financial trouble. Two months after Levy’s death, Goldsmith Brothers was forced to make an assignment of its assets to another clothing business. The paper reported that at that time Goldsmith Brothers had assets of almost $70,000 but liabilities of over $142,000. From this report it appears that the creditors of Goldsmith Brothers were prepared to take 33 1/3 cents on the dollar for the money owed to them.

“The Creditors of Goldsmith Brothers,” The Philadelphia Times, February 13, 1887, p. 2.

Three days later there was a detailed update on the appraisal of the assets of the business, showing that Abraham had net assets of $300 and the company itself had net assets of $69,306.73:

“Goldsmith Brothers’ Estate,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, February 16, 1887, p. 2.

And two days after that the creditors agreed to accept 37 ½ cents on the dollar for the money owed to them by Goldsmith Brothers.

“The Goldsmith Failure,” The Philadelphia Times, February 18, 1887, p. 1.

I don’t know what caused the problems in the Goldsmith Brothers business, but there was a nationwide recession from 1882 until 1885 that very well may have contributed to their financial problems.17

Things must have seemed rather dire for Abraham at that point, but he regrouped, and by January 1888, he was in business with his two sons, Milton and Edwin:

The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 3, 1888, p. 2.

The 1888 Philadelphia directory shows that the business was now called A. Goldsmith & Sons, with Abraham’s two oldest sons, Milton and Edwin, working with him. They would both continue to work with Abraham throughout the 1890s.

A. Goldsmith & Sons, 1888 Philadelphia directory, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1888
Source Information
Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995

The 1890s also brought some other changes as Abraham’s older children began to marry and have children of their own and Abraham faced some personal challenges.  More on that in my next post.


  1. The Jewish Exponent (Philadelphia), January 24, 1902, p. 3. 
  2.  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VB16-KTZ : 8 December 2014), Milton Growsmith, 22 May 1861; citing bk 2 p 168, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,306. 
  3. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VBYZ-D6J : 8 December 2014), Goldsmith, 22 Aug 1862; citing bk 4 p 157, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,307. 
  4.  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6FXJ-86?cc=1951739&wc=M61X-4PF%3A251391701 : 21 May 2014), 004198957 > image 126 of 604; Department of Records. 
  5. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-6163-K8G?cc=1951739&wc=M61X-46D%3A251391401 : 21 May 2014), 004198958 > image 452 of 560; Department of Records. 
  6. Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Certificate Number Range: 121031-124420, Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966. Original data: Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
  7.  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VB13-5S4 : 8 December 2014), Estelle Goldsmith, 20 Jan 1870; citing bk 1870 p 231, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,31 
  8. The (Philadelphia) Jewish Exponent, January 24, 1908, p. 11. 
  9. Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Certificate Number Range: 006001-010000, Source Information
    Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966. Original data: Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
  10.  Year: 1876; Arrival: New York, New York; Microfilm Serial: M237, 1820-1897; Microfilm Roll: Roll 403; Line: 10; List Number: 344, Ancestry.com. New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957 
  11. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:V1MS-C1M : 8 December 2014), Alfred Goldsmith, 11 Aug 1877; citing bk 1877 p 157, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,318 
  12.  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VBT5-5R2 : 8 December 2014), Goldsmith, 16 Aug 1878; citing bk 1878 p 23, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,319. 
  13. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VBR5-HSD : 8 December 2014), Goldsmith, 29 Aug 1880; citing bk 1880 p 26, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,320. 
  14. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Births, 1860-1906,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:V1MW-53K : 8 December 2014), Louis Goldsmith, 04 Nov 1882; citing bk 1882 p 134, Department of Records; FHL microfilm 1,289,322. 
  15. Ancestry.com. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Death Certificates Index, 1803-1915 .“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records.”. 
  16.  “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6913-HH9?cc=1320976&wc=9FRJ-K68%3A1073335202 : 16 May 2014), 004058561 > image 459 of 1239; Philadelphia City Archives and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
  17. David Glasner, ed., Business Cycles and Depressions: An Encyclopedia (Garland Publishing Inc., 1997), pp. 149-151. 

My Uncle Jacob Goldsmith: Final Chapter

Ordinarily, families expand with each generation. Two parents may have two or more children, and then each of those children may have two or more children, meaning there are at least four grandchildren of the first couple. If each of those grandchildren also has two or more children, then there are at least eight great-grandchildren, and so on with each successive generation. Of course, not all people have children, and even those who do don’t necessarily have more than one. In earlier times, however, before reliable birth control, it was not at all unusual for people to have six or more children with each succeeding generation continuing to multiply and expand. In my research I’ve come to expect a family tree of four generations to look like this:

But for Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith, the pattern does not hold. They had seven children, six of whom lived to adulthood. Only four of those children had children of their own. Caroline had three children, Philip had three, Harry had two, and Huldah had three, making a total of eleven grandchildren, ten of whom lived to adulthood.

Of the ten grandchildren who lived to adulthood, only five had children of their own. Jessica Rice had one child, Byron Goldsmith had one child, Stanton Loeb Dreifus had two children, Arthur Raphael had one child, and Adelaide Raphael had two children; there were thus only seven great-grandchildren of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith, six of whom lived to adulthood.

So for Jacob and Fannie’s family, instead of a increasingly widening triangle we have something more like this:

Instead of each successive generation expanding, the fourth generation was smaller than the third. And none of the generations expanded as widely as one would ordinarily expect. This post focuses on the third and fourth generations beginning in 1940.

By then all of Jacob and Fannie’s children were gone as were four of their eleven grandchildren. Seven grandchildren were left. Caroline’s daughters Rena Rice Sternfels and Jessica Rice Sondheim, Philip’s sons Byron, Herbert, and Jerome Goldsmith, and Huldah’s son’s Herbert and Arthur Raphael. Since I already wrote about Philip’s three sons, this post will only discuss Caroline’s three surviving children and their children and Huldah’s two surviving children and their children.

In 1940, Caroline’s daughter Rena and her husband Edwin Sternfels were living in Mount Vernon, New York. Neither reported an occupation.1 Rena died five years later on September 10, 1945; she was seventy years old.2 Her husband died on December 23, 1952, when he was 87.3 They had not had children so there were no descendants.

Rena’s sister Jessica and her husband Philip Sondheim still lived in Brookline in 1940, and Philip continued to practice law.4 Philip died on March 7, 1947, at age 77.5  Jessica lived another twenty years; she died in Brookline at age 86 in March, 1967. 6 They had one daughter, Ruth, who had married Adrian Kramer in 1924.

Adrian was killed in a car accident on June 29, 1950; according to the Boston Herald, he died in a two-car collision on the Mystic Valley Parkway near the Somerville-Medford line in Massachusetts.7 I mention that because for several years in the 1970s I lived only a mile away from where that accident occurred. (There was no Whole Foods there at that time.)

Adrian’s wife Ruth died on October 12, 1987; she was 84.8 Ruth and Adrian had one daughter who survived them.

As for Huldah Goldsmith Raphael’s’s two sons, J. Herbert Raphael and his wife Matilda were living in Philadelphia in 1940; Herbert was a chemical salesman and Matilda was a clerk for a shirt company.9 Herbert died in 1960 when he was 77 years old.10 Matilda, who was 27 years younger than her husband, lived until June 12, 1997; she was 87 when she died.11 They had not had children.

Huldah’s younger son Arthur Raphael and his wife Josephine and son Ross were living in Philadelphia in 1940; Arthur was an insurance salesman and his twenty year old son Ross was a musician with an orchestra.

Arthur Raphael and family 1940 US Census
Year: 1940; Census Place: Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: m-t0627-03753; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 51-2142
Ancestry.com. 1940 United States Federal Census

Josephine died on January 21, 1960, from gall bladder cancer and septicemia; her husband Arthur died from heart disease exactly one month later on February 21, 1960. She was 64, he was 76. Another couple in the family whose deaths were remarkably close in time.

Josephoine Raphael death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 008251-010950
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

Arthur Raphael death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 019051-021750
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

Their son Ross M. Raphael led an interesting life, which I learned about from an obituary written when he died in November 2004.  Entitled “Music Was Constant Theme in Life Of Pianist, Conductor Ross Raphael,” and written by Tammie Wersinger in the November 17, 2004, Orlando Sentinel, the article states:

For nearly half a century, Ross Raphael entertained Central Florida residents with his orchestra, big band, Latin rhythm bands and soothing piano tunes.

On any given night, he could be found conducting in venues as big as Lake Eola Park and the Maitland Civic Venter or as intimate as the old Villa Nova lounge in Winter Park.

Raphael, who used his music not only to entertain concertgoers but to raise money for causes he believed in, died Sunday of cancer.  He was 84. ….

Raphael loved to play piano and, by the age of 12, he was selected as Pennsylvania’s top child music composer.  It was at that time that he became the leader of a teenage orchestra that performed on local radio.

After high school, Raphael took his show on the road, performing with entertainers such as Frank Sinatra, Don Everly, Rudy Vallee and Milton Berle.

He also headlined in Las Vegas, was a conductor for musicals in Philadelphia and traveled with the From Here to Eternity movie, playing the opening music.

After leaving the big time for Central Florida in 1956, Raphael recruited many of his famous friends for local shows. …

Raphael, who was a Mason and a veteran of the Army Special Services, was a major player in the local Republican Party. The politically active musician played at the White House for three presidents—Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush. ….

The obituary did not disclose much about his personal life aside from mentioning that he was survived by his wife, a daughter, stepson, and three grandchildren.

Ross Raphael   found at            Tammie Wersinger, “Music Was Constant Theme in Life Of Pianist, Conductor Ross Raphael,” November 17, 2004, Orlando Sentinel

Finally, there were the two other great-grandsons of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith, Harry W. Hahn, Jr. and Arthur Hahn, the sons of Adelaide Raphael and Harry WIlliam Hahn, Sr.  I could not find Harry, Jr. on the 1940 census despite having two possible addresses, one in Baltimore from a Baltimore directory and one in Washington from his World War II draft registration. In 1937 he was living in Baltimore, 12 working for the family shoe business. When he registered for the draft for World War II, he was living in Washington, still working for the family shoe business.

Harry W. Hahn, Jr. World War II draft registration
Draft Registration Cards for District of Columbia, 10/16/1940 – 03/31/1947, Selective Service Registration Cards, World War II: Multiple Registrations
The National Archives. Found at Fold3,com

In 1940, his brother Arthur was living with his family in Washington, DC, where he also continued to work in the family-owned shoe store. 13 Arthur H. Hahn died on March 21, 1993, when he was 80 years old. 14 He had lived in Washington, DC, his whole life. He was survived by his three sons and his older brother, Harry W. Hahn, Jr., who died on December 19, 2001; he was 92.15  Harry, Jr had one son who survived him.

Thus ends the story of my three-times great-uncle Jacob Goldsmith and his family and descendants. He started as an immigrant coming from Germany to Philadelphia as a young man, and he and his children created comfortable lives for themselves as merchants in Philadelphia. By the generations of Jacob’s grandchildren and great-grandchildren, the family’s place in America was well-established with descendants who were college graduates, prominent businessmen, and a successful musician.

Next I will turn to Jacob’s siblings who followed Jacob here to America in what we now call “chain immigration.” They also would become solid citizens of their new country.

 

 

 

 

 


  1. Rena and Edwin Sternfels, 1940 US Census, Census Place: Mount Vernon, Westchester, New York; Roll: m-t0627-02807; Page: 8B; Enumeration District: 60-167,
    Ancestry.com. 1940 United States Federal Census 
  2.  New York Department of Health; Albany, NY; NY State Death Index; Certificate Number: 54255, Source Information Ancestry.com. New York, Death Index, 1880-1956. Original data: NY State Death Index, New York Department of Health, Albany, NY. 
  3.  Ancestry.com. New York, New York, Death Index, 1949-1965. Original data: New York City Department of Health, courtesy of www.vitalsearch-worldwide.com. Digital Images. 
  4. Jessica and Philip Sondheim, 1940 US Census, Census Place: Brookline, Norfolk, Massachusetts; Roll: m-t0627-01625; Page: 15B; Enumeration District: 11-50,
    Ancestry.com. 1940 United States Federal Census 
  5.  Ancestry.com. Massachusetts, Mason Membership Cards, 1733-1990. Original data: Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Masons Membership Cards 1733–1990. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. 
  6. Ancestry.com. Massachusetts, Death Index, 1901-1980. Original data: Department of Public Health, Registry of Vital Records and Statistics. Massachusetts Vital Records Index to Deaths [1916–1970]. Volumes 66–145. Facsimile edition. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. 
  7. “Motor Crashes Kill 2, Boy, 12, Is Drowned,” The Boston Herald, June 30, 1950, p. 33. 
  8.  Ancestry.com. Massachusetts, Death Index, 1970-2003. Original data: State of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Death Index, 1970-2003. Boston, MA, USA: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Health Services, 2005. 
  9. J.Herbert and Matilda Raphael, 1940 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: m-t0627-03704; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 51-548, Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1940. T627, 4,643 rolls. 
  10.  Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records, Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1669-2013Original data: Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
  11.  Number: 182-05-0932; Issue State: Pennsylvania; Issue Date: Before 1951, Source Information Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935-2014 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2011. Original data: Social Security Administration. Social Security Death Index, Master File. Social Security Administration. 
  12.  Baltimore, Maryland, City Directory, 1937, Source Information
    Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 
  13. Arthur Hahn, 1940 US Census, Census Place: Washington, District of Columbia, District of Columbia; Roll: m-t0627-00561; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 1-251,
    Ancestry.com. 1940 United States Federal Census, Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1940. T627, 4,643 rolls. 
  14.  Number: 577-03-0537; Issue State: District of Columbia; Issue Date: Before 1951, Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935-2014 
  15.  Number: 216-09-0360; Issue State: Maryland; Issue Date: Before 1951,  Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935-2014 

Til Death Do Us Part

Most of us have heard of a husband and wife dying within weeks or months of each other—sometimes just days. There is apparently some real science behind the phenomenon of long-time spouses dying close in time. In the Jacob Goldsmith family, it happened twice within just a few years to two different couples.

By 1930, as seen in my earlier post, Emma Goldsmith Cohlman was the only surviving child of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith. On the 1930 census she was living in Philadelphia, claiming to be a 68 year old widow though she was in fact 79 and divorced. There were also ten grandchildren of Jacob and Fannie living in 1930. That would not be the case ten years later.

Caroline Goldsmith and Nathan Rice’s daughter Rena Rice and her husband Edwin Sternfels were still living in New York City in 1930 where Edwin was still in advertising. 1 Rena’s brother Sidney and his wife Martha Sondheim were still living in Philadelphia, and Sidney was also in the advertising business.2 The youngest child of Caroline Goldsmith and Nathan Rice, their daughter Jessica Rice, and her husband Philip Sondheim were still living in Brookline where Philip practiced law.3 Jessica and Philip’s daughter Ruth and her husband Adrian Kramer and daughter Natalie were living in Boston, and Adrian was an equipment salesman.4

Huldah’s children were also well-settled in 1930. Her two sons, Herbert and Arthur Raphael, were living in the same household in Philadelphia, along with Arthur’s wife Josephine and ten year old son Ross.  Arthur was now an insurance salesman and Herbert a commercial salesman. 5 Their younger sister Adelaide and her husband Harry W. Hahn and their two sons were living in Washington, DC, where Harry continued to work in the family shoe business.6

As I wrote earlier, Philip Goldsmith’s three sons were all living in Philadelphia in 1930; Byron and Jerome were married, and Herbert continued to live with his mother Nellie’s siblings. As for Harry Goldsmith’s biological son Stanton Loeb Dreifus, he was living in Queens, New York, with his wife and son and was an iron and steel broker, like his step or adoptive father Emanuel Dreifus.

Thus, as of 1930, all looked fairly calm for the grandchildren of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith. But within ten years, the family would suffer one heartache after another with just a few occasions for celebration.

Although Harry and Adelaide (Raphael) Hahn’s two sons were married in the 1930s, both weddings were overshadowed by deaths in the family. On January 22, 1934, their older son, Harry W. Hahn, Jr., married Elizabeth Hofheimer in Norfolk, Virginia. 7 Elizabeth was the daughter of J.Caesar Hofheimer and Bessie Hirschler of Norfolk.8 The bride and groom were both 24 years old.

The Washington Star provided this description of the wedding:

Washington DC Evening Star, January 28, 1934, p. 3

The youthful bride, who was given away by her brother, Mr. Edward Hofheimer, looked lovely in her wedding gown of aqua marine crepe, trimmed in Summer ermine. She carried a bouquet of lilies of the valley, a white bible that was used by the bridegroom’s mother and a duchess lace handkerchief that was carried by the bride’s mother. A family dinner followed the ceremony and at 7:30 o’clock in the evening Mr. and Mrs. Hahn left by boat for New York and sailed on Wednesday, January 24, for Bermuda to spent two weeks. On their return they will visit the bridegroom’s parents at their home…for a few days before going to their future home in Baltimore, where they have taken an apartment in Ingraham Hall.

The bridegroom had for his best man his brother, Mr. Arthur Hahn, who is a senior at Yale College. The bridegroom is a graduate of Yale, the class of ’31. ….

Imagine Jacob and Fannie’s pride if they’d lived to see two great-grandsons at Yale. In four generations the family had gone from new immigrants to Ivy League graduates.

But that pride and the joy of the newlywedded couple were soon eclipsed by sadness. Less than a year after the wedding, Harry W. Hahn, Sr., Adelaide’s husband, died “after a long illness” at age 54 on December 8, 1934. He would have turned 55 nine days later. His obituary reported that he had gone to Phillips Exeter Academy, spent a year at Harvard, and graduated from Georgetown University Law School before going into the shoe business established by his father and uncles. He was also active in many civic, business, and charitable organizations.

“H.W. Hahn Dies; Headed Shoe Firm,” Washington (DC) Evening Star, December 8, 1834, p.2.

Baltimore Sun, December 9, 1934, p. 7.

A few months later the family gathered again to celebrate a wedding, this time for Arthur Hahn, Adelaide and the late Harry Sr.’s younger son. On June 20, 1935, Arthur married Maxine Goodkind in Chicago.9  She was the daughter of Abraham Goodkind and Harriet Steele. She and Arthur were only 21 years old when they married.  This wedding did not receive the big write-up in the newspaper that Harry Jr.’s wedding had received eighteen months earlier and was presumably a less elaborate affair, given the recent death of Arthur’s father. The paper did report that they were married at the bride’s home in Chicago and would be returning to Washington where they would live with Arthur’s mother, Adelaide. The paper also reported that Arthur’s mother, his brother Harry Jr., and Harry’s wife Elizabeth also came to Chicago for the wedding.

Washington DC Evening Star, June 23, 1935, p. 4

Once again, the joy of the newlyweds was crushed by another death. On September 30, 1935, just three months after Arthur and Maxine’s wedding, Adelaide Raphael Hahn died from a sudden heart attack after being involved in a three-car accident in Riverdale, Maryland.10 According to the report in the Washington Evening Star, “[a]fter the accident Mrs. Hahn alighted from her car and talked to the police and the drivers of the other machines. Suddenly she collapsed and fell to the ground. She died shortly after Dr. Martin Keane arrived.”

The article also reported that Adelaide’s new daughter-in-law Maxine was in the car with her at the time as was her “colored maid,” Florence Walker, who suffered a possible fractured pelvis. Maxine and the other two drivers were unharmed. It still floors me every time the blatant racism of those times raises its ugly head. Why comment at all on the race of the maid? No mention was made of anyone else’s race. It is so apparent that those who were not white were considered “the other” and that it was considered totally acceptable for the press to make that distinction.

According to the same article, an autopsy was performed and confirmed that Adelaide had died from a heart attack, not from injuries sustained in the accident itself. The paper also reported that Adelaide had been suffering from a heart condition before the accident, according to her personal physician.

Washington DC Evening Star, October 1, 1935, p. 2.

In the space of less than two years, Arthur Hahn and Harry Hahn, Jr. had both experienced the joys of getting married and the heartbreaks of losing both of their parents.

The tragedies suffered by the extended family did not stop there.  Three members of the family died in December, 1936. First, on December 5, 1936, Martha Sondheim Rice, the wife of Sidney Rice, died from lung cancer at age 65; her brother Philip was the informant.

Martha Sondheim Rice death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 108501-111500
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

Then four days later on December 9, 1936, Martha’s husband Sidney Rice died at age 63 from a cerebral thrombosis. Once again, Philip Sondheim was the informant. Remember that Philip was not only Martha’s brother, but was also married to Sidney’s sister Jessica. That is, within four days Philip and Jessica each lost a sibling, and those siblings themselves had been husband and wife. Sidney and Martha were truly a couple who were together not only in life but in death.

Sidney Rice death certificate Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 108501-111500 Description Certificate Number Range: 108501-111500 Source Information Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

Six days after Sidney Rice died, the last remaining child of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith, Emma Goldsmith Cohlman, died of an acute intestinal obstruction at age 85 on December 15, 1936. Her nephew Arthur Raphael, Huldah Goldsmith’s son, was the informant on her death certificate. Another nephew, Philip Goldsmith’s son Byron Goldsmith, was the doctor signing the death certificate.

Emma Goldsmith Cohlman death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 105501-108500
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

In less than a month, the family had suffered three losses.

There was, however, one happier occasion during 1936. Huldah Goldsmith Raphael’s older son J. Herbert Raphael married Matilda Wishoff, the daughter of two Russian immigrants, Hyman Wishoff and Rebecca Cohen. Matilda was born in Philadephia on September 20, 1909, not long after her parents and older siblings had immigrated; her father was a barber.  When they married, Matilda was 27, Herbert was 54.11

There was one final loss in the 1930s when Harry Goldsmith’s biological son Stanton Loeb Dreifus died on July 11, 1938. He was 53 years old. I don’t know how much, if any, contact he had had with Harry or Harry’s family after his mother remarried in 1901, but as he was my biological relative, I wanted to mark his passing as well. He was survived by his wife and one son. Another son had died as a toddler in 1915.12

By 1940, the family must have felt quite devastated by all these losses. But life did go on for those who remained—the seven grandchildren and six great-grandchildren of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith  who were still living.  They will be discussed in my next and final post on the descendants of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith.

 

 

 


  1. Edwin and Rena Sternfels, 1930 US Census, Census Place: Manhattan, New York, New York; Roll: 1577; Page: 12A; Enumeration District: 1014; FHL microfilm: 2341312,
    Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census 
  2. Sidney and Martha Rice, 1930 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: 2102; Page: 20A; Enumeration District: 0572; FHL microfilm: 2341836, Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census 
  3. Philip and Jessica Sondheim, 1930 US Census, Census Place: Brookline, Norfolk, Massachusetts; Roll: 933; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 0023; FHL microfilm: 2340668, Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census 
  4. Ruth and Adrian Kramer, 1930 US Census, Census Place: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts; Roll: 949; Page: 1A;Enumeration District: 0328; FHL microfilm: 2340684, Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census 
  5. Raphael family, 1930 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: 2136; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 1075; FHL microfilm: 2341870, Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census 
  6. Adelaide and Harry W. Hahn, 1930 US Census, Census Place: Washington, District of Columbia; Roll: 304; Page: 16A; Enumeration District: 0377; FHL microfilm: 2340039, Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census 
  7. Marriage record of Harry W. Hahn, Jr., and Elizabeth Hofheimer, Ancestry.com. Virginia, Select Marriages, 1785-1940, Original data: Virginia, Marriages, 1785-1940. Salt Lake City, Utah: FamilySearch, 2013. 
  8. Elizabeth Hofheimer birth record, Ancestry.com. Virginia, Birth Records, 1912-2014, Delayed Birth Records, 1854-1911 Original data: Virginia, Births, 1864–2014. Virginia Department of Health, Richmond, Virginia. 
  9. Marriage record of Harry Hahn and Maxine Goodkind, Ancestry.com. Cook County, Illinois Marriage Index, 1930-1960, Original data: Cook County Clerk, comp. Cook County Clerk Genealogy Records. Cook County Clerk’s Office, Chicago, IL: Cook County Clerk, 2008. 
  10.  District of Columbia Deaths, 1874-1961,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X2K4-884 : accessed 26 February 2018), Adelaide R Hahn, 30 Sep 1935, Riverdale, Prince George’s, Maryland, United States; citing reference ID , District Records Center, Washington D.C.; FHL microfilm 2,116,849. 
  11.  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Index, 1885–1951.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009. Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Clerk of the Orphans’ Court. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia marriage license index, 1885-1951.” Clerk of the Orphans’ Court, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
  12.  Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current, Original data: Find A Grave. Find A Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi. 

Keeping It In The Family 1920-1930

By 1920, only two of the children of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith were still living, their two oldest children, Caroline and Emma. Caroline was a widow, and Emma was divorced; both were living in Philadelphia. How did these two women, now in their seventies, survive without their husbands? A woman without a husband in the 1920s was unusual. The marriage rate in 1920 was the highest ever—92% of women over 15  were married. How did a divorced or widowed woman cope in those times?That is one part of the story in this post.

Jacob and Fannie were also survived by ten grandchildren: Caroline’s three children (Rena, Sidney, and Jessica); Philip’s three sons whose lives I wrote about here; Harry’s son Stanton, whose story is here; and Huldah’s husband Chapman Raphael and their three children, Herbert, Arthur, and Adelaide. This post will report on what happened to Caroline and Emma and the children of  Caroline and Huldah during the 1920s.

I had a hard time finding both Caroline and Emma on the 1920 census. I finally found Emma listed as Emma Coleman, a misspelling of her ex-husband Abraham Cohlman’s surname. At least I think this is Emma. She was living as a lodger in Philadelphia. The age is correct as is her birthplace of Pennsylvania, but her marital status is single, and the record reports her parents were born in Pennsylvania, when in fact Jacob and Fannie were both born in Germany. My assumption is that someone else in the household answered the enumerator’s questions and did not know where Emma’s parents were born, that she was divorced, or even how she spelled her surname.

Emma Goldsmith Cohlman 1920 census
1920; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 22, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T625_1623; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 597
Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census

As for Caroline, she also eluded me for quite a while because I was searching for a woman who was widowed, not married. But then I found a Caroline Rice married to a Jacob Rice who was a woolens salesman, and the light bulb lit up.

Caroline Goldsmith Rice 1920 census
Year: 1920; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 14, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T625_1620; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 278
Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census

(And yes, that is one of my Abraham Mansbachs living next door; that’s Abraham Mansbach V, who was related by marriage to Caroline; Caroline’s aunt Sarah Goldschmidt was married to Abraham Mansbach II, who was Abraham Mansbach V’s first cousin once removed.)

Nathan Rice, Caroline Goldsmith’s husband who died in 1913, had a brother J.J Rice; that brother had been the master of ceremonies at Rena Rice’s wedding. He had been living with Nathan and Caroline in 1900 when he was a wool salesman1 and in 1910 when he listed his occupation as a cloth salesman.2 In fact, in 1870 when Nathan and Caroline were living in Dubuque, Iowa, with Nathan’s parents, Nathan’s brother, Jacob J. Rice, was living in the household as well.3 In other words, Jacob J. or J.J. Rice had been living with his brother Nathan and sister-in-law Caroline for most if not all of their marriage.

A search of the Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Indexes, 1885-1951, database on FamilySearch confirmed that in fact Jacob J. Rice married Caroline G. Rice in 1915 in Philadelphia.4 So Caroline had married her brother-in-law J.J. Rice two years after the death of her husband (and J.J’s brother) Nathan.

In 1920 Caroline’s daughter Rena and her husband Edwin Sternfels were still living in New York City, where Edwin was in advertising.5 Caroline’s son Sidney and his wife were living in Philadelphia, and Sidney was also in advertising, working as a traveling salesman. 6 Jessica, Caroline’s youngest child, was still living in Brookline, Massachusetts, with her husband Philip Sondheim, the lawyer, and their daughter Ruth, who was now seventeen.7

As for Huldah’s children, her younger son Arthur Seligman Raphael and his wife Josephine Isaacs were living in Philadelphia in 1920; Arthur’s father Chapman and older brother Herbert were also part of that household. Arthur was a shoe salesman, and his brother Herbert sold shoe polish. Arthur and Josephine’s son Ross was born on March 10, 1920, in Philadelphia.8

Raphael family 1920 census
Year: 1920; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 42, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T625_1643; Page: 19A; Enumeration District: 1559
Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census

Huldah’s daughter Adelaide and her husband Harry Hahn were living with their sons in Washington, DC, in 1920; Harry was still a shoe merchant.9

The 1920s were a relatively quiet decade for the family, at least in terms of major lifecycle events.  In 1924, Ruth Sondheim, daughter of Jessica Rice and Philip Sondheim and granddaughter of Caroline Goldsmith Rice, married Adrian Kramer in Brookline, Massachusetts.10 Adrian’s background is a mystery.   According to his military record from World War I (see below),  and his World War II registration card, 11 he was born in New York City on December 14, 1896. But despite searching in numerous places for all Kramers and all Adrians within two years of that date, and all boys born on that date, I have not found his birth record. Perhaps he was born with a different name.

I also cannot find Adrian on the 1900 census; the first record I have for him is the 1905 New York State census, when he was living on West 88th Street in the household of Maier Kramer. Adrian was eight years old and listed as Maier’s son, but there was no wife. Also living in the household were six of Maier’s siblings: Sandilla, Joseph, Leo, Eva, David, and Minnie. At first I thought Sandilla or Eva might have been Maier’s wife, but earlier records show that they were in fact his sisters.

Adrian Kramer 1905 NYS census
New York State Archives; Albany, New York; State Population Census Schedules, 1905; Election District: A.D. 21 E.D. 03; City: Manhattan; County: New York; Page: 12
Ancestry.com. New York, State Census, 1905

The 1910 census also shows the six Kramer siblings living with Adrian on West 88th Street, but now Adrian is identified as their brother.  That seems like an error—he was fifteen and the youngest of the other “siblings” was thirty. And earlier census records show that Maier’s father was born in about 1837 and his mother was born in 1845; it seems quite unlikely that they had a child in 1896. According to the 1910 census, all of the Kramer siblings were single, except for Sandilla, who was divorced. I can’t find them on the 1920 census, but in both 1930 and 1940, the siblings were still living together, and all were unmarried, except Sandilla, who now reported on both that she was a widow.

Adrian Kramer 1910 US census
Year: 1910; Census Place: Manhattan Ward 12, New York, New York; Roll: T624_1023; Page: 15A; Enumeration District: 0580; FHL microfilm: 1375036
Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census

So who was Adrian? I don’t know who his parents were, but I do know that he was in the United States Marine Corps during World War I, serving overseas in France from August 26, 1918, until January 13, 1919.

Military record of Adrian Kramer, World War I
Ancestry.com. New York, Abstracts of World War I Military Service, 1917-1919 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2013.
Original data: New York State Abstracts of World War I Military Service, 1917–1919. Adjutant General’s Office. Series B0808. New York State Archives, Albany, New York.

By 1921 he was living in Boston, working as a salesman.12 And in 1924, he married my cousin Ruth Rice Sondheim. Two years later they had their only child, a daughter named Natalie.13

On December 3, 1925, Hulda Goldsmith’s husband Chapman Raphael died in Washington, DC. He was 75 and had been sick for some time.

“Chapman Raphael Dies, Washington (DC) Evening Star, December 4, 1925, p. 4.

The last family lifecycle event in the 1920s came on July 10, 1928, when the oldest of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith’s children passed away.  Caroline Goldsmith Rice died from bronchopneumonia at age 79. The informant on the death certificate was her husband/brother-in-law, Jacob J. Rice. And the doctor who signed the death certificate was S. Byron Goldsmith, her nephew and the son of her long-ago deceased brother, Philip Goldsmith. I was heartened to see that Philip’s son had stayed in touch with his father’s family even though he had been taken in and cared for by his mother’s family when his parents were killed in 1896.

Caroline Goldsmith Rice death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 068501-071500
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

Thus, by 1930, Emma Goldsmith Cohlman was the only surviving child of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith. Unfortunately, the 1930s would bring the family more heartbreak.

 


  1. Jacob J. Rice, 1900 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 29, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Page: 4; Enumeration District: 0710,  Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census 
  2. Jacob J. Rice, 1910 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 47, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T624_1414; Page: 5B; Enumeration District: 1200; FHL microfilm: 1375427, Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census 
  3. Jacob J. Rice, 1870 US Census, Census Place: Dubuque Ward 1, Dubuque, Iowa; Roll: M593_389; Page: 61A; Family History Library Film: 545888, Ancestry.com. 1870 United States Federal Census 
  4.  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Indexes, 1885-1951,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:JV85-N6R : 26 September 2017), Rice and Caroline G Rice, 1915; citing license number 335782, Clerk of the Orphan’s Court. 
  5. Rena and Edwin Sternfels, 1920 US Census, Manhattan Assembly District 21, New York, New York; Roll: T625_1224; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 1427, 1920 United States Federal Census, Ancestry.com 
  6. Sidney and Martha Rice, 1920 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 38, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T625_1636; Page: 8A; Enumeration District: 1344,
    Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census 
  7. Jessica and Philip Sondheim, 1920 US Census, Census Place: Brookline, Norfolk, Massachusetts; Roll: T625_721; Page: 17B; Enumeration District: 167, Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census 
  8.  Ancestry.com. U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007. Original data: Social Security Applications and Claims, 1936-2007. 
  9. Adelaide Goldsmith Hahn and family, 1920 US Census, Census Place: Washington, Washington, District of Columbia; Roll: T625_210; Page: 13B; Enumeration District: 166, Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census 
  10. Ancestry.com. Massachusetts, Marriage Index, 1901-1955 and 1966-1970 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2013.
    Original data: Department of Public Health, Registry of Vital Records and Statistics. Massachusetts Vital Records Index to Marriages [1916–1970]. Volumes 76–166, 192– 207. Facsimile edition. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. 
  11.  The National Archives at St. Louis; St. Louis, Missouri; World War II Draft Cards (Fourth Registration) for the State of Massachusetts; Record Group Title: Records of the Selective Service System, 1926-1975; Record Group Number: 147; Series Number: M2090 
  12.  Boston, Massachusetts, City Directory, 1921, Source Information
    Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 
  13. Massachusetts, Birth Index, 1901-1960 and 1967-1970, Ancestry.com 

The Goldsmith Sisters: A Post for Women’s History Month

In the last series of posts, I’ve written about the death of my three-times great-uncle, Jacob Goldsmith, the death of his son Philip in the 1896 Atlantic City train tragedy, and the mysterious life of Jacob’s son Harry Goldsmith, who died in 1913. But now it is time to return to the women in Jacob’s family and their families: his wife Fannie and their four daughters, Caroline, Emma, Hannah, and Huldah.

That seems quite appropriate as March is Women’s History Month. None of the Goldsmith sisters had public lives, but their private lives are representative of the lives many women led in those times.

In the earlier posts we saw that all the daughters had married by the 1890s and that two of them, Caroline and Huldah, had children.  In 1900, three of the four daughters were living in Philadelphia while one, Hannah, was living with her husband Isaac in Circleville, Ohio.

The first decade of the 20th century saw three weddings in the family, the births of two of Jacob and Fannie’s great-grandchildren, and one death.

Both of Caroline (Goldsmith) and Nathan Rice’s younger children were married in 1902, and they married siblings. First, on March 25, 1902, Jessica Rice married Philip Joseph Sondheim in Philadelphia1; a month later in Boston, on April 29, 1902, her brother Sidney Rice married Philip’s sister, Martha Sondheim.

Sidney Rice and Martha Sondheim marriage record 1902; Ancestry.com. Massachusetts, Marriage Records, 1840-1915 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2013.
Original data: Massachusetts Vital Records, 1840–1911. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. Massachusetts Vital Records, 1911–1915. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts.

Martha and Philip were both born in Boston to Joseph and Johanna (Lorch) Sondheim.2 Their father was in the men’s clothing business, and Philip was an attorney. 3

Sidney and Martha settled in Philadelphia, where Sidney was a salesman. Philip and Jessica settled in the Boston area, where Philip continued to practice law. Their daughter Ruth was born on January 16, 1903.4

Fannie Lehmann Goldsmith lived to see the birth of her first great-grandchild Ruth, but died two years later on June 16, 1905, in Philadelphia.  She was 77 years old and died of chronic nephritis. She was buried with her husband Jacob in Mt. Sinai cemetery.

Fannie Goldsmith death record
“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-6X3Q-KTV?cc=1320976&wc=9FRQ-BZS%3A1073114202 : 16 May 2014), 004008778 > image 153 of 535; Philadelphia City Archives and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

The third wedding of the 1900s decade was that of Adelaide Raphael, the daughter of Huldah Goldsmith and Chapman Raphael. Adelaide married Harry William Hahn on October 21, 1908. The wedding was written up in the October 25, 1908, Washington (DC) Evening Star:5

A wedding that will interest a number of Washingtonians took place Wednesday night at the Majestic Hotel in Philadelphia, when Miss Adelaide G. Raphael, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Chapman Raphael, became the bride of Mr. Harry W. Hahn of this city.

The ceremony, which was performed by Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, was witnessed by over one hundred relatives and friends of the couple.

The youthful bride was most becomingly gowned in an empire white satin dress elaborately trimmed with panels of duchess lace and touches of the same lace on the waist.  Her tulle veil was held in place with natural orange blossoms and she carried a shower bouquet of orchids and lilies of the valley. The bride’s two attendants were Miss Rae Hahn, sister of the groom, and Miss Lillian Klein of Philadelphia.  They wore yellow satin empire gowns and carried yellow chrysanthemums.

An example of a wedding dress from 1908 (Not of Adelaide)
By Snyder, Frank R. Flickr: Miami U. Libraries – Digital Collections [No restrictions or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

[Then followed a list of the ushers including the bride’s brothers, Herbert and Arthur.]

Mrs. William Hahn, mother of the groom, wore a handsome gown of gray chiffon velvet, trimmed with real laces, and wore a corsage bouquet of violets and orchids. Mrs. Chapman Raphael, mother of the bride, wore a black lace robe and violets.

After the ceremony and reception a dinner was served.  The tables were made attractive with flowers and trailing vines, from which shone tiny electric lights.

Mr. and Mrs. Hahn are taking a water trip to Savannah and Florida. Upon their return to this city they will take an apartment in the Royalton on M street.

Adelaide and Harry’s first child was born less than ten months later on August 2, 1909; he was named Harry William Hahn, Jr.6

By 1910, three of the four daughters of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith were what we now call empty nesters. Caroline and Nathan Rice were now in their sixties, living in Philadelphia with Nathan’s brother J.J. Rice and a servant.  Nathan was a traveling clothing salesman.7 Their daughter Rena and her husband Edwin Sternfels were living in New York City; they had no children.8 Sidney Rice and his wife Martha were living in Philadelphia where Sidney was an advertising salesman; they also had no children.9 And Caroline and Nathan’s youngest child Jessica was living in Brookline, Massachusetts with her husband Philip Sondheim and their daughter Ruth; Philip continued to practice law in Boston.10

Emma Goldsmith and her husband Abraham Cohlman were living in Philadelphia in 1910 where Abraham was a clothing merchant. Their ages are not reported accurately on the 1910 census where it reports that Abraham was 48 and Emma 46 when in fact Abraham was 41 and Emma was 59.11

Emma’s younger sister Hannah had returned from Circleville, Ohio, by 1910; she and her husband Isaac Levy were living in Philadelphia where Isaac was working as a liquor salesman. Neither Emma nor Hannah had had children.12

Finally, the youngest sister Huldah was living in Philadelphia with her husband Chapman Raphael and their two sons, Herbert and Arthur. Chapman was in the wholesale liquor business, Herbert was in the polish and oil business, and Arthur was in the shoe business.13 Huldah and Chapman’s daughter Adelaide was living in Washington, DC, with her husband and son, Harry William Hahn, Sr. and Jr., where Harry’s family owned a shoe store, Hahn Shoes. 14 Adelaide and Harry had their second child on September 10, 1912, and named him Arthur.15

Although the 1900s decade was primarily a happy one for the family, the decade between 1910 and 1920 was primarily a decade of losses for the family.

Hannah Goldsmith Levy died in Atlantic City of acute nephritis on August 12, 1912; she was 58 years old.

Hannah Goldsmith Levy death certificate
“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-6SR9-4RD?cc=1320976&wc=9FRK-HZS%3A1073200601 : 16 May 2014), 004009260 > image 264 of 547; Philadelphia City Archives and Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Caroline Goldsmith Rice lost her husband Nathan less than a year later; he died on January 16, 1913, in Philadelphia; he was seventy and died from cerebral apoplexy or a stroke.

Nathan Rice death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 009001-012660
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

Emma Goldsmith suffered a different type of loss; by 1914 her marriage to Abraham Cohlman had ended. Perhaps the eighteen year age difference finally proved to be too difficult. Abraham remarried and by 1920 had a six year old child with his second wife.16 As we will see, Emma lived for over twenty more years, on her own without a husband. She was probably quite unusual for a woman of her times.

As noted in my last post, Harry Goldsmith also died in this decade, in 1917 in Detroit.

There was at least one happy event in this decade. Huldah and Chapman Raphael’s younger son Arthur was married in 1917 to Josephine Isaacs.17 She was the daughter of Marc and Fannie Isaacs, both of whom were Philadelphia natives as was Josephine. Her father was a pawnbroker.18

But the following year the family suffered yet another blow when Hulda Goldsmith Raphael, the youngest daughter of Jacob and Fannie Goldsmith, died from pneumonia on October 3, 1918; she was 57 years old.

Huldah Goldsmith Raphael death certificate
Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission; Pennsylvania, USA; Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1966; Certificate Number Range: 146751-150000
Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1966

 

Thus, during this decade, Caroline became a widow, Emma was divorced, and Hannah and Huldah died.  Only Caroline and Huldah had children who would survive them. Their lives in 1920 and thereafter will be covered in my next post.

 

 

 

 


  1.  Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Index, 1885–1951.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009. Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Clerk of the Orphans’ Court. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia marriage license index, 1885-1951.” Clerk of the Orphans’ Court, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Ancestry.com. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Marriage Index, 1885-1951. License Number 144239. 
  2.  Ancestry.com. Massachusetts, Birth Records, 1840-1915; Original data: Massachusetts Vital Records, 1840–1911. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts.Massachusetts Vital Records, 1911–1915. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. 
  3. Joseph Sondheim and family, 1900 US Census, Boston Ward 21, Suffolk, Massachusetts; Page: 13; Enumeration District: 1474; Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census 
  4.   Massachusetts Vital Records, 1840–1911. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts.Massachusetts Vital Records, 1911–1915. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Massachusetts. Ancestry.com.  Massachusetts, Birth Records, 1840-1915. 
  5. Washington (DC) Evening Star, October 25, 1908. p. 61. 
  6.  Draft Registration Cards for District of Columbia, 10/16/1940 – 03/31/1947, WWII Draft Registration Cards. National Archives. Fold3.com. 
  7. Caroline and Nathan Rice, 1910 US Census; Philadelphia Ward 47, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T624_1414; Page: 5B; Enumeration District: 1200; FHL microfilm: 1375427; Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census. 
  8. Rena and Edwin Sternfels, 1915 New York State Census, New York State Archives; Albany, New York; State Population Census Schedules, 1915; Election District: 25; Assembly District: 23; City: New York; County: New York; Page: 22; Ancestry.com. New York, State Census, 1915 
  9. Sidney and Martha Rice, 1910 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 29, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T624_1399; Page: 18B; Enumeration District: 0692; FHL microfilm: 1375412, Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census. The census lists Martha as “Rose” for some reason, but all other records identify her as Martha. 
  10. Philip Rice, 1908 Boston City Directory, Boston, Massachusetts, City Directory, 1908; Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 
  11. Abraham and Emma Cohlman, 1910 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 28, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T624_1402; Page: 7A; Enumeration District: 0628; FHL microfilm: 1375415;  Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census 
  12. Emma and Isaac Levy, 1910 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 32, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T624_1403; Page: 3B; Enumeration District: 0751; FHL microfilm: 1375416; Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census 
  13. Huldah and Chapman Raphael and family, 1910 US Census; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 32, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T624_1403; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0751; FHL microfilm: 1375416, Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census 
  14. Adelaide and Harry W. Hahn, 1910 US Census, Census Place: Precinct 2, Washington, District of Columbia; Roll: T624_149; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 0015; FHL microfilm: 1374162; Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census 
  15.  The National Archives in St. Louis, Missouri; St. Louis, Missouri; Draft Registration Cards for District of Columbia, 10/16/1940 – 03/31/1947; Record Group: Records of the Selective Service System, 147; Box: 094; Source Information
    Ancestry.com. U.S. WWII Draft Cards Young Men, 1940-1947. 
  16. Abraham Cohlman, 1920 US Census, Year: 1920; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 29, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T625_1633; Page: 13A; Enumeration District: 969; Ancestry.com 
  17. Marriage record of Arthur Raphael and Josephine Isaacs, Ancestry.com. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Marriage Index, 1885-1951; Original data: “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Index, 1885–1951.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009. Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Clerk of the Orphans’ Court. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia marriage license index, 1885-1951.” Clerk of the Orphans’ Court, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. License Number 375863, 1917. 
  18. Marc and Fannie Isaacs and family, 1900 US Census, Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 32, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Page: 10; Enumeration District: 0829; Source Information Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census