The last ancestral town we visited on our trip was Schopfloch in Bavaria where my three-times great-grandfather John (born Josua) Nussbaum was born in 1814. I wrote a long post about Schopfloch when I was doing my research of my Nussbaum relatives. The town dates back to the 13th century, and there was a Jewish community there in the 14th century. As early as the 17th century, there was a synagogue, a mikveh, and a school in Schopfloch. In 1867, there were almost 400 Jews in the town out of almost 2000 residents. Today Schopfloch is a small town of about 3000 people, about half the size of Gau-Algesheim and slightly larger than Jesberg, but four times the size of Sielen. There is no Jewish community there now.
My 4x-great-grandparents, Amson Nussbaum and Voegele Welsch, died in 1836 and 1842, respectively, and I thought they were likely the last family members to have died in Schopfloch. Six of their eight children immigrated to the United States before 1860; there were two additional daughters for whom I had birth information, but no information as to whether they had married or had children or where or when they had died. I am still searching for the documents Angelika Brosig used to document this Nussbaum family. But, as far as I knew, there was no one left in Schopfloch from my Nussbaum family after 1860. Would I find anything relating to my ancestors in this town?
I had arranged for Jutta Breittinger, who works at the Schopfloch town hall, to be our guide; since Frau Breittinger said she did not speak English well, she had recommended that we also hire a translator. When we met Frau Breittinger, we were soon joined by the translator and his wife, whose names I never quite caught. They were all very helpful and very earnest in their desire to help us and inform us about the Jewish history of Schopfloch.
Our three guides told us the same thing we had heard in the other small towns we’d visited: before the Nazi era, Jews and Christians had worked and lived together without any problems. As described by our translator, Lachoudisch, the secret language developed in Schopfloch, is evidence of this co-operative relationship. Most Jews in Schopfloch were involved in horse and cattle trading, and market day was on Saturdays, the Jewish Sabbath. The Jewish traders relied on their Christian neighbors to assist with business on Saturdays, using their “secret language” as a way of communicating with them in confidence.
Frau Breittinger told us that she and a number of other Schopfloch residents were now studying Lachoudisch to keep the language alive. At the end of our visit, we purchased Lachoudisch Sprechen by Hans-Rainer Hofmann, a small book about the language which includes a list of Lachoudisch words and their German equivalents. It was very interesting to see some of the Lachoudisch words—-some derived from Hebrew like yes (“kenn”) and no (“lou”) and night (“Laila”) and please (“bewackasha”), some from sources I can’t determine like “kiss” for the word “kiss,” which is neither German nor Hebrew for the word we use for kiss in English. It’s all rather fascinating and also amazing that people in Schopfloch are trying to keep this language alive.
We walked around the corner from the Rathaus to what is now called Bahnhofstrasse but was once called Judengasse. It was here that the synagogue once stood. Here is an old photograph of Judengasse with the synagogue on the far right. Below is a photograph of a model of the way the synagogue once looked:
There is no building now where the synagogue once stood; it is essentially an empty lot between two other buildings. A plaque marks where it once stood. As I wrote in my earlier post, this synagogue, like so many throughout Germany, was destroyed on Kristallnacht in November, 1938, and by then all the Jews had left the town. The town, which once had almost 400 Jewish residents, had become “Judenfrei.”
Across the street from the location of the former synagogue was the building which was once the Jewish school.
We then walked through the town and up the hill to get to the Jewish cemetery. I was very surprised to see how large the cemetery was, given how small the town was (and still is). There are almost 1200 stones there, making it larger than any of the synagogues we had seen in the Hessen region, but it served not just Schopfloch but also several other towns nearby. The cemetery is actually quite beautiful. There is a stone wall that surrounds the entire cemetery.
But sadly many of the stones, especially the older ones, are not at all legible. Some are sinking into the soft ground or already have disappeared. And the further back we went in the cemetery to reach the oldest stones, the harder it was to find stones that were legible. The oldest legible stones I could find were from the 1880s, and thus I knew I was not going to find the stones for my 4x-great-grandparents who died before 1850.
Once I came to that realization, I decided instead to focus on the stones I could read, and there were some very interesting ones there. Several people had asked about the hand symbols in one of my earlier posts:
As I explained, those are the symbols indicating that the person buried there descended from the tribe of the high priests, the Cohanim. But there were other symbols in the Schopfloch cemetery that I’d not seen before.
For example this one shaped like a tree trunk, which symbolizes a premature death—someone whose life was cut short.
Or this one with a palm tree. I was unfamiliar with this as a Jewish gravestone symbol, so I asked the members of the Tracing the Tribe group on Facebook. I got wonderfully helpful responses, including a translation of the text. What we deduced from the text and from Psalm 92 (“the righteous shall flourish like a palm tree”) is that the date palm is a symbol of righteousness; the man buried here was probably a rabbi, and the text refers to his philanthropy and his scholarliness. He’s not my relative, but I am glad I looked into the meaning of his stone. His name was David Ballenberger 1815-1881.
This one interested me because of the unusual way the Hebrew letters were carved. Notice also the two completely eroded stones behind it. Could those be the stones for my Nussbaum 4x-great-grandparents? I don’t know.
Finally, I found this one very interesting:
It has three symbols on it: a butcher’s knife, a shofar (the horn blown on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur), and a knife used for circumcision. I asked my friend Brett Levi to translate this for me, and he confirmed that the text indicated that the man buried there had been a shochet (kosher butcher), a shofar blower, and a mohel (person trained to do ritual circumcisions).
After visiting the cemetery, we walked back to town hall, where we saw the model of the former synagogue depicted above. After purchasing the Lachoudisch book, we said goodbye to our guides and headed out of Schopfloch.
We were excited to be going to our last stop, Heidelberg. I have no genealogical connection to the city, and these last three days of our trip were going to be days to relax, enjoy a beautiful city, and look back on everything we’d seen. I had scheduled a walking tour of Worms for part of one of the days, but otherwise, we were going to be on our own.
So we took a deep breath, got back into our Nissan Juke, and set the GPS to take us to Heidelberg. We were ready for the last leg of our trip and had plenty of time to get to Heidelberg and return our rental car before 6 pm when the Hertz office closed.
But it was not to be.